Английский, вариант 4 (Andrey Sakharov)
Дата публикации: 31.01.2021

Английский, вариант 4 (Andrey Sakharov)


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I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.
а) 1. Quantum mechanics has greatly introduced the nuclear theory.
2. The problem of structure of matter is constantly occupying the minds of many scientists.
б) 1. Today many polymeric materials are produced on a massive scale.
2. Many compounds can be decomposed when they are acted upon by different forms of energy.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Natural rubber is a thermoplastic material that becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.
2. Matter composed of any chemical combination of elements is called a compound.
3. The smallest particle having all the characteristics of an element is called an atom.
4. While bombarding the upper layers of the atmosphere, cosmic rays reach the surface of the earth.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Heat can be divided into three different types.
2. A great number of plastics should find their application in the electrical industry.
3. Chemical means had to be used for the application of compounds into their elements.
4. The existence of an X-ray laser in the future may be possible.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 7-ой абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2, 4 и 6-ой абзацы. Письменно ответьте на вопрос после текста.
Andrey Sakharov
1. Andrey Dmitrievich Sakharov, an outstanding scientist and public figure, was born on the 21st of May, in the family of teachers. He graduated from Moscow University in 1942. In 1947 he defended his thesis for the degree of Candidate of Science. In 1953 he defended his Doctorate thesis and was elected member of the Academy of sciences.
2. When he was a graduate student, Sakharov began to work on the Soviet nuclear weapons program and soon he suggested totally new idea for hydrogen bomb design. But he was getting more and more worried about the consequences of his work. He understood better than anybody else what nuclear weapons meant and he thought about his own responsibility and about the responsibility of the states which possessed such weapons.
3. In 1968 he wrote an article attacking Soviet political system. He wrote that people needed a democratic society, free of dogmatism.
4. Sakharov is often called the father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, but he became more known as a champion of human rights and freedom. For his work the Nobel Committee awarded him the Peace Prize in 1975. The Committee called him to go to Norway to receive the award.
5. In 1966 he took part in his first human rights demonstration, a one-minute silent protest in Pushkin Square. A year later, he wrote a letter to the government defending imprisoned dissidents.
6. His international repute as a scientist kept him of jail, but in 1980 when he protested against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, he was deprived all his titles and orders and exiled to the city of Gorky. In 1986 Sakharov was invented to Moscow and given back all his titles and orders.
7. Andrey Sakharov died in 1989. He is remembered by everybody as an outstanding humanist, who could teach and inspire and who foresaw the changes that are taking place now.

What conclusion did Sakharov come to while working on the bomb?


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